Philosophy and Value Structure

The Social Discipline Window

Relationships with Connection

Human beings are wired for connection. Our ability to thrive depends not only on food, shelter, and clothing, but also on strong and meaningful relationships.  The social science of restorative philosophy brings forth an opportunity to build healthy relationships, address harm in those relationships, and strengthen our schools, workplaces, and living communities. Through authentic dialogue that fosters trust, interconnection, and active accountability we become more able to nurture our human connections. 

Relational Learning

Following the work of P. McCold and T. Wachtel learning to work "with" others is outlined in the Social Discipline Window as shown in the graphic to the left. 


“The underlying premise is that people are happier, more cooperative, more productive and more likely to make positive changes when those in positions of authority do things with them rather than to them or for them.” (The Restorative Practice Handbook, Costello and Wachtel)

A few key words—NOT, FOR, TO and WITH—have helped clarify this model. If we are neglectful in our leadership, parental, or teaching style we would NOT do anything in response to a student’s, child's, or staff's inappropriate behavior. If permissive, we would do everything FOR them and ask little in return. If punitive, we would respond by doing things TO them. When responding in a restorative manner, we do things WITH them and involve them directly in the process. A critical element of the restorative approach is that, whenever possible, WITH also includes the person harmed, family, friends and members of the school or work community— those who have been impacted by the wrongdoer’s behavior. It’s also important to note that, depending upon the circumstance, we may need to consider responses from any one of these four boxes. Adopting a lens that considers a restorative response as a first response to challenging behaviors is the choice that restorative practitioners value. Flipping the script asks restorative practitioners to state why a restorative response cannot be used vs. why it should. 


The circle is a dialog process that works intentionally to create a safe space to discuss very difficult or painful issues in order to improve relationships and resolve differences. The intent of the circle is to find resolutions that serve every member of the circle. The process is based on an assumption of equal worth and dignity for all participants and therefore provides equal voice to all participants. Every participant has gifts to offer in finding a good solution to the problem. The circle process is deliberate in discussing how the conversation will be held before discussing the difficult issues. Consequently, the circle works on values and guidelines before talking about the differences or conflict. Where possible the circle also works on relationship building before discussing the difficult issues. The responsibility of the keeper is to help the participants create a safe space for their conversation and to monitor the quality of the space throughout the circle. If the atmosphere becomes disrespectful, it is the responsibility of the keeper to bring the group’s attention to that problem and help the group re-establish a respectful space.  Using a circle process is not simply a matter of putting chairs in a circle. Careful preparation is essential to good practice in using circles. Kay Pranis

Transformative Mediation

The primary goal of transformative mediation is to foster the parties' empowerment and recognition, enabling them to approach their current problem, as well as later problems, with a stronger, more open view.

The transformative approach to mediation does not seek resolution of the immediate problem, but rather, seeks the empowerment and mutual recognition of the parties involved. 

Empowerment  is the restoration of an individual's sense of their own value and strength and their own capacity to handle the conflict of challenge they are facing. Through empowerment, individuals gain greater clarity about their goals, resources, options, and preferences and they use this information to make their own clear and deliberate decisions. 

Recognition offers an opportunity for each person to see and understand the other person's point of view -- to understand how they define the problem and why they seek the solution that they do.  Recognition means the evocation of an individual's acknowledgment and empathy for the situation and the other person they are in conflict with. 

Often, when empowerment and recognition are present and "working" within a conversation, it paves the way for a mutually agreeable settlement.


Credit - Transformative Mediation:  Robert A. Baruch Bush and Joseph Folger

Conflict Theory

Take a moment - grab a pen and paper.  Draw a picture of conflict.  What do you see?  If you were to explain your picture to someone using only one word, what would that word be?  Often we hear words such as:  anger, frustration, fear, argument, divide, hassle, mixed-up, competition, strife... and so on.  Webster's dictionary defines conflict as war, fight, battle, struggle. 

Consider this, if you are seeking common ground, a form of resolution or peace you must move past this initial definition of "fight" "win at all costs" or our own "rightness" and redefine this word.  Imagine stepping into a conflict conversation and you are thinking, "fight, battle, war, struggle."  What is your likely outcome?  However, if  you can intentionally redefine conflict using such words as growth and opportunity it's possible that your conflict outcomes will improve.  

Personal Conflict Characteristics

Each of us has our own conflict stories, history, and experiences that we carry with us in our conflict interactions. Maybe we have attended training to increase our conflict skills, maybe we were raised in a family that was overly passive or somewhat aggressive.  Our work roles and parental roles may require us to engage in conflict in ways that are not natural to us.  Our gender, age, education, and personalities impact our conflict style.  These variables influence who we become inside a conflict.  Critical to the positive influence of your conflict interactions is the ability to self-monitor and self-reflect on your "personal conflict characteristics."